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What is Outcrossing?

In genetics, outcrossing refers to the breeding of two individuals that are not closely related or those who come from different populations. This is in contrast to inbreeding that involves breeding individuals that are closely related. In plants, outcrossing can…

What is a Test cross?

A test cross is a genetic cross between an individual with a dominant phenotype (but an unknown genotype) and a homozygous recessive individual. The is to determine the genotype of the dominant individual. The offspring of a testcross is used…

What are Transposable Elements?

Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can move from one location in the genome to another. They are also known as “jumping genes,” TEs can cause genetic variation and are found in the genomes of most organisms, from bacteria…